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STUDIES AVAILABLE OF MUCUNA

Sources :- http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov

1. Mucuna pruriens improves male fertility by its action on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis.

Shukla KK, Mahdi AA, Ahmad MK, Shankhwar SN, Rajender S, Jaiswar SP.

Department of BiochemistryC.S.M. Medical University, Lucknow, India.

OBJECTIVE: To understand the mechanism of action of Mucuna pruriens in the treatment of male infertility. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Departments of Biochemistry, Urology, and Obstetrics and Gynecology, C.S.M. Medical University, Lucknow, India. PATIENT(S): Seventy-five normal healthy fertile men (controls) and 75 men undergoing infertility screening. INTERVENTION(S): High-performance liquid chromatography assay for quantitation of dopa, adrenaline, and noradrenaline in seminal plasma and blood. Estimation by RIA of hormonal parameters in blood plasma, namely T, LH, FSH, and PRL. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Before and after treatment, serum T, LH, FSH, PRL, dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline in seminal and blood plasma were measured. RESULT(S): Decreased sperm count and motility were seen in infertile subjects. Serum T and LH levels, as well as seminal plasma and blood levels of dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline were also decreased in all groups of infertile men. This was accompanied by significantly increased serum FSH and PRL levels in oligozoospermic subjects. Treatment with M. pruriens significantly improved T, LH, dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline levels in infertile men and reduced levels of FSH and PRL. Sperm count and motility were significantly recovered in infertile men after treatment. CONCLUSION(S): Treatment with M. pruriens regulates steroidogenesis and improves semen quality in infertile men.

PMID: 18973898 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

2. Mucuna pruriens Reduces Stress and Improves the Quality of Semen in Infertile Men.

Shukla KK, Mahdi AA, Ahmad MK, Jaiswar SP, Shankwar SN, Tiwari SC.


Department of Biochemistry, King George's Medical University, Lucknow 226003, India. mahdiaa@rediffmail.com.

The present investigation was undertaken to assess the role of Mucuna pruriens in infertile men who were under psychological stress. Study included 60 subjects who were undergoing infertility screening and were found to be suffering from psychological stress, assessed on the basis of a questionnaire and elevated serum cortisol levels. Age-matched 60 healthy men having normal semen parameters and who had previously initiated at least one pregnancy were included as controls. Infertile subjects were administered with M. pruriens seed powder (5 g day(-1)) orally. For carrying out morphological and biochemical analysis, semen samples were collected twice, first before starting treatment and second after 3 months of treatment. The results demonstrated decreased sperm count and motility in subjects who were under psychological stress. Moreover, serum cortisol and seminal plasma lipid peroxide levels were also found elevated along with decreased seminal plasma glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid contents and reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity. Treatment with M. pruriens significantly ameliorated psychological stress and seminal plasma lipid peroxide levels along with improved sperm count and motility. Treatment also restored the levels of SOD, catalase, GSH and ascorbic acid in seminal plasma of infertile men. On the basis of results of the present study, it may be concluded that M. pruriens not only reactivates the anti-oxidant defense system of infertile men but it also helps in the management of stress and improves semen quality.

PMID: 18955292 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

3. Hypoglycemic effect of Mucuna pruriens seed extract on normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

Bhaskar A, Vidhya VG, Ramya M.

Department of Biotechnology, Bishop Heber College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu 620 017, India.

The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the seeds of Mucuna pruriens was investigated in normal, glucose load conditions and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In normal rats, the aqueous extract of the seeds of Mucuna pririens (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.001) reduced the blood glucose levels after an oral glucose load from 127.5+/-3.2 to 75.6+/-4.8 mg% 2 h after oral administration of seed extract. It also significantly lowered the blood glucose in STZ diabetic rats from 240.5+/-7.2 to 90.6+/-5.6 mg% after 21 days of daily oral administration of the extract (P<0.001). Thus, this study shows that M. pruriens has an anti-hyperglycemic action and it could be a source of hypoglycemic compounds.

PMID: 18672037 [PubMed - in process]

4. Estimation of L-dopa from Mucuna pruriens LINN and formulations containing M. pruriens by HPTLC method.

Modi KP, Patel NM, Goyal RK.

Department of Pharmacology, Shri B. M. Shah College of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, College Campus, Modasa-383315, India. ketan_modi11@rediffmail.com

A selective, precise, and accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for the analysis of L-dopa in Mucuna pruriens seed extract and its formulations. The method involves densitometric evaluation of L-dopa after resolving it by HPTLC on silica gel plates with n-butanol-acetic acid-water (4.0+1.0+1.0, v/v) as the mobile phase. Densitometric analysis of L-dopa was carried out in the absorbance mode at 280 nm. The relationship between the concentration of L-dopa and corresponding peak areas was found to be linear in the range of 100 to 1200 ng/spot. The method was validated for precision (inter and intraday), repeatability, and accuracy. Mean recovery was 100.30%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values of the precision were found to be in the range 0.64-1.52%. In conclusion, the proposed TLC method was found to be precise, specific and accurate and can be used for identification and quantitative determination of L-dopa in herbal extract and its formulations.

PMID: 18310948 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5. Proteomic analysis of the pathophysiological process involved in the antisnake venom effect of Mucuna pruriens extract.

Guerranti R, Ogueli IG, Bertocci E, Muzzi C, Aguiyi JC, Cianti R, Armini A, Bini L, Leoncini R, Marinello E, Pagani R.

Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrine-Metabolic Sciences and Biochemistry, University of Siena, Via A. Moro 2, Siena, Italy. guerranti@unisi.it

Previously, we reported the antisnake venom properties of a Mucuna pruriens seed extract (MPE) and tested its in vivo efficacy against Echis carinatus venom (EV) in short- (1 injection) and long-term (three weekly injections) treatments. The aim of the present study was to investigate plasma proteome changes associated with MPE treatments and identify proteins responsible for survival of envenomated mice (CHALLENGED mice). Six treatment groups were studied. Three control groups: one saline, one short-term and one long-term MPE treatment. One group received EV alone. Two test groups received EV with either a short-term or long-term MPE treatment (CHALLENGED mice). The plasma from each group was analysed by 2-DE/MALDI-TOF MS. The most significant changes with treatment were: albumin, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, serum amyloid A and serum amyloid P. Most of these changes were explained by EV effects on coagulation, inflammation and haemolysis. However, MPE treatments prevented the EV-induced elevation in HPT. Consequently, HPT levels were similar to controls in the plasma of CHALLENGED mice. The plasma of CHALLENGED mice showed substantial proteomic modifications. This suggests the mechanism of MPE protection involves the activation of counterbalancing processes to compensate for the imbalances caused by EV.

PMID: 18203263 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6. Antiparkinson drug--Mucuna pruriens shows antioxidant and metal chelating activity.

Dhanasekaran M, Tharakan B, Manyam BV.

Department of Pharmacal Sciences, Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn, Alabama, USA.

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder for which no neurorestorative therapeutic treatment is currently available. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda, traditionally uses Mucuna pruriens to treat Parkinson's disease. In our earlier studies, Mucuna pruriens has been shown to possess antiparkinson and neuroprotective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease. The antioxidant activity of Mucuna pruriens was demonstrated by its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, ABTS radicals and reactive oxygen species. Mucuna pruriens significantly inhibited the oxidation of lipids and deoxyribose sugar. Mucuna pruriens exhibited divalent iron chelating activity and did not show any genotoxic/mutagenic effect on the plasmid DNA. These results suggest that the neuroprotective and neurorestorative effect of Mucuna pruriens may be related to its antioxidant activity independent of the symptomatic effect. In addition, the drug appears to be therapeutically safe in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types: PMID: 18064727 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7. Effect of Mucuna pruriens on semen profile and biochemical parameters in seminal plasma of infertile men.

Ahmad MK, Mahdi AA, Shukla KK, Islam N, Jaiswar SP, Ahmad S.

Department of Biochemistry, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of Mucuna pruriens seeds on semen profiles and biochemical levels in seminal plasma of infertile men. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Departments of Biochemistry and Obstetrics and Gynecology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India. PATIENT(S): Sixty normal healthy fertile men (controls) and 60 men undergoing infertility screening. INTERVENTION(S): High-performance liquid chromatography assay procedure for quantitation of vitamin A and E in seminal plasma. Biochemical parameters in seminal plasma, namely lipids, fructose, and vitamin C, were estimated by standard spectrophotometric procedures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Before and after the treatment, seminal plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxide, fructose, and antioxidant vitamin levels were measured. RESULT(S): Treatment with M. pruriens significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation, elevated spermatogenesis, and improved sperm motility. Treatment also recovered the levels of total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and vitamin A, C, and E and corrected fructose in seminal plasma of infertile men. CONCLUSION(S): Treatment with M. pruriens increased sperm concentration and motility in all the infertile study groups. Oligozoospermic patients recovered sperm concentration significantly, but sperm motility was not restored to normal levels in asthenozoospermic men. Furthermore, in the seminal plasma of all the infertile groups, the levels of lipids, antioxidant vitamins, and corrected fructose were recovered after a decrease in lipid peroxides after treatment. The present study is likely to open new vistas on the possible role of M. pruriens seed powder as a restorative and invigorating agent for infertile men.

Publication Types: PMID: 18001713 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8. The itch-producing agents histamine and cowhage activate separate populations of primate spinothalamic tract neurons.

Davidson S, Zhang X, Yoon CH, Khasabov SG, Simone DA, Giesler GJ Jr.

Department of Neuroscience, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

Itch is an everyday sensation, but when associated with disease or infection it can be chronic and debilitating. Several forms of itch can be blocked using antihistamines, but others cannot and these constitute an important clinical problem. Little information is available on the mechanisms underlying itch that is produced by nonhistaminergic mechanisms. We examined the responses of spinothalamic tract neurons to histaminergic and, for the first time, nonhistaminergic forms of itch stimuli. Fifty-seven primate spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons were identified using antidromic activation techniques and examined for their responses to histamine and cowhage, the nonhistaminergic itch-producing spicules covering the pod of the legume Mucuna pruriens. Each examined neuron had a receptive field on the hairy skin of the hindlimb and responded to noxious mechanical stimulation. STT neurons were tested with both pruritogens applied in a random order and we found 12 that responded to histamine and seven to cowhage. Each pruritogen-responsive STT neuron was activated by the chemical algogen capsaicin and two-thirds responded to noxious heat stimuli, demonstrating that these neurons convey chemical, thermal, and mechanical nociceptive information as well. Histamine or cowhage responsive STT neurons were found in both the marginal zone and the deep dorsal horn and were classified as high threshold and wide dynamic range. Unexpectedly, histamine and cowhage never activated the same cell. Our results demonstrate that the spinothalamic tract contains mutually exclusive populations of neurons responsive to histamine or the nonhistaminergic itch-producing agent cowhage.

Publication Types: PMID: 17855615 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9. Nutritional quality evaluation of velvet bean seeds (Mucuna pruriens) exposed to gamma irradiation.

Bhat R, Sridhar KR, Seena S.

Microbiology and Biotechnology, Department of Biosciences, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Effects of gamma irradiation on Mucuna pruriens seeds at various doses (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 30 kGy) on the proximate composition, mineral constituents, amino acids, fatty acids and functional properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation resulted in a significant increase of crude protein at all doses, while the crude lipid, crude fibre and ash showed a dose-dependent decrease. Raw Mucuna seeds were rich in minerals (potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron and selenium). Sodium, copper and manganese were significantly decreased on irradiation at all the doses, while magnesium and iron showed a significant decrease only above 10 kGy. The essential amino acids of raw and gamma-irradiated Mucuna seeds were comparable with the FAO/WHO recommended pattern. A significant increase of in vitro protein digestibility was seen in seeds irradiated at 30 kGy. High amounts of unsaturated fatty acids in Mucuna seeds decreased significantly after irradiation. However, linoleic acid was not present in raw seeds but detected after irradiation and it was elevated to high level at 30 kGy. Behenic acid, a major anti-nutritional factor, was reduced significantly on irradiation, indicating the positive effect of gamma irradiation on Mucuna seeds. Significant enhancement in the water absorption and oil absorption capacities, protein solubility, emulsion activity and improvement in the gelation capacity was recorded after irradiation. Results of the present investigation reveal that application of gamma irradiation does not affect the overall nutritional composition and can be used as an effective method of preservation of Mucuna seed and their products.

PMID: 17852489 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10. Psychophysical and physiological evidence for parallel afferent pathways mediating the sensation of itch.

Johanek LM, Meyer RA, Hartke T, Hobelmann JG, Maine DN, LaMotte RH, Ringkamp M.


Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA.

The neuronal pathways for itch have been characterized mainly based on responses to histamine. Intracutaneous application of histamine produces intense itch and a large area of axon-reflexive vasodilation ("flare") around the application site. Both phenomena are thought to be mediated through neuronal activity in itch-specific, mechanoinsensitive C-fiber afferents (CMi). However, mechanical and electrical stimuli that do not activate CMi fibers can cause the sensation of itch, and itch may occur without flare, suggesting that other neuronal itch pathways exist. Because cutaneous application of spicules from the plant Mucuna pruriens (cowhage) has been anecdotally reported to produce itch without flare, we performed psychophysical experiments to investigate whether the mechanisms underlying cowhage- and histamine-induced itch differ. Although histamine and cowhage produced itch of similar magnitude, the itch to cowhage was not correlated with the itch to histamine; some subjects had intense itch to cowhage and little itch to histamine and visa versa. Laser Doppler measurements of blood flow revealed that histamine led to a large area of vasodilation, whereas cowhage produced vasodilation restricted to the application site. Pretreatment of the skin with an antihistamine blocked the itch produced by histamine but did not prevent cowhage-induced itch. Desensitization of the skin with topical capsaicin abolished cowhage-induced itch but did not significantly alter histamine-induced itch. These findings indicate that cowhage itch is signaled through a population of capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerve fibers that is distinct from CMi fibers mediating histamine-induced itch. Cowhage may be useful to investigate the neural pathway mediating nonhistaminergic itch.

Publication Types: PMID: 17626210 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11.Anti-Parkinson botanical Mucuna pruriens prevents levodopa induced plasmid and genomic DNA damage.

Tharakan B, Dhanasekaran M, Mize-Berge J, Manyam BV.

Department of Neurology, Scott & White Clinic, Temple, Texas, USA.

Levodopa is considered the 'gold standard' for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, a serious concern is dyskinesia and motor fluctuation that occurs after several years of use. In vitro experiments have shown that in the presence of divalent copper ions, levodopa may induce intense DNA damage. Mucuna pruriens cotyledon powder (MPCP) has shown anti-parkinson and neuroprotective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease that is superior to synthetic levodopa. In the present study two different doses of MPCP protected both plasmid DNA and genomic DNA against levodopa and divalent copper-induced DNA strand scission and damage. It exhibited chelation of divalent copper ions in a dose-dependent manner. The copper chelating property may be one of the mechanisms by which MPCP exerts its protective effects on DNA. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types: PMID: 17622977 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12. Extraction of bioactive principles from Mucuna pruriens seeds.

Misra L, Wagner H.

Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, India. laxmisra@hotmail.com

Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Syn. M. prurita Hook. (Papilionaceae) is used in male impotency, as aphrodisiac, in sexual debility, and as nervine tonic. It also possesses anti-parkinson property, possibly due to the presence of L-DOPA. In the present study, attempts were made to develop the suitable method(s) for extraction of L-DOPA/other active components from the seeds using different solvents. The various extracts were also screened for their neuroprotective and antioxidant activities. In addition, TLC and HPLC fingerprinting of the extracts for amino acid components were also developed for preliminary and sophisticated analysis. The L-DOPA could be obtained in good yield on extraction with EtOH-H2O mixture (1:1) using ascorbic acid as protector. Interestingly, n-propanol extract, which contained negligible amount of L-DOPA, had shown significant neuroprotective activity, suggesting that some components, other than L-DOPA, might also be responsible for anti-Parkinson property of seeds. The extract (MW-0100) containing mainly amino acids and water-ethanol extract (1:1) (MWEL-1299) showed promising antioxidant activity (EC50 = 2.5 microg) against DPPH radicals. MWEL-1299 also exhibited encouraging results against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) toxicity. The TLC fingerprinting may be used to authenticate the plant material in herbal industry.

Publication Types: PMID: 17385342 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13.Role of catechol structure in the adsorption and transformation reactions of L-DOPA in soils.

Furubayashi A, Hiradate S, Fujii Y.

Biodiversity Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences (NIAES), 3-1-3 Kan-nondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8604, Japan. furuba@affrc.go.jp

3-(3',4'-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine (L-DOPA), which is synthesized in velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens), inhibits plant growth. The concentration of L-DOPA in soil is reduced by adsorption and transformation reactions, which can result in the reduction of its plant-growth-inhibitory activity. To determine which part of the L-DOPA structure is involved in the adsorption and soil transformation reactions, we compared the kinetics of L-DOPA disappearance in a volcanic ash soil with that of L-phenylalanine (3-phenyl-L-alanine) and L-tyrosine (3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine), compounds that are similar in structure to L-DOPA but do not have a catechol (o-dihydroxybenzene) moiety. L-Phenylalanine and L-tyrosine were not adsorbed and transformed in the soil at equilibrium pH values between 4 and 7. These results suggest that the adsorption and transformation reactions of L-DOPA in the soil involve the catechol moiety and not the amino and carboxylic acid groups, which are common to all three compounds. Like L-DOPA, (+)-catechin, another allelochemical that contains a catechol moiety, underwent adsorption and soil transformation reactions. Thus, we concluded that the concentrations of allelochemicals bearing a catechol moiety in soils will decrease rapidly owing to adsorption and transformation reactions, and this decrease will be faster in soils with a high pH value or high adsorption ability. Owing to this decrease in concentration, allelopathic phenomena may not occur.

PMID: 17195117 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14. L-DOPA increases lignification associated with Glycine max root growth-inhibition.

Soares AR, Ferrarese Mde L, Siqueira Rde C, Böhm FM, Ferrarese-Filho O.

Laboratory of Plant Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, University of Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900, Maringá, PR, Brazil.

L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L: -DOPA), an allelochemical exuded from the roots of velvet bean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. var. utilis], presents a highly inhibitory action to plant growth. The effects of L-DOPA on phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activities, and phenolic compound and lignin content in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] roots were investigated to determine the possible phytotoxic mechanism. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0), without or with 0.1 to 1.0 mM L-DOPA in a growth chamber (25 degrees C, 12-hr light to 12-hr darkness photoperiod, irradiance of 280 micromol m-2 s-1) for 24 hr. In general, the length, fresh weight, and dry weight of the roots decreased, whereas PAL and POD activities and phenolic compound and lignin content increased after L-DOPA treatments. Results showed the susceptibility of soybean to L-DOPA and reinforce the role of this nonprotein amino acid as a strong allelochemical. The present findings also suggest that L-DOPA-induced inhibition in soybean roots may be because of a cell wall stiffening process related to the formation of cross-linking between cell wall polymers linked to lignin production.

Publication Types: PMID: 17195115 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
15. Structural characterization of the N-glycans of gpMuc from Mucuna pruriens seeds.

Di Patrizi L, Rosati F, Guerranti R, Pagani R, Gerwig GJ, Kamerling JP.

Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Siena, via A. Moro 4, 53100, Siena, Italy.

Mucuna pruriens seeds are used in some countries as a human prophylactic oral anti-snake remedy. Aqueous extracts of M. pruriens seeds possess in vivo activity against cobra and viper venoms, and protect mice against Echis carinatus venom. It was recently demonstrated that the seed immunogen generating the antibody that cross-reacts with the venom proteins is a multiform glycoprotein (gpMuc), and the immunogenic properties of gpMuc seemed to mainly reside in its glycan chains. In the present study, gpMuc was found to contain only N-glycans. Part of the N-glycans could be released with peptide-(N (4)-(N-acetyl-beta -glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase F (PNGase F-sensitive N-glycans); the PNGase F-resistant N-glycans were PNGase A-sensitive. The oligosaccharides released were analyzed by a combination of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, HPLC profiling of 2-aminobenzamide-labelled derivatives and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The PNGase F-sensitive N-glycans comprised a mixture of oligomannose-type structures ranging from Man(5)GlcNAc(2) to Man(9)GlcNAc(2), and two xylosylated structures, Xyl(1)Man(3)GlcNAc(2) and Xyl(1)Man(4)GlcNAc(2). The PNGase A-sensitive N-glycans, containing (alpha 1-3)-linked fucose, were identified as Fuc(1)Xyl(1)Man(2)GlcNAc(2) and Fuc(1)Xyl(1)Man(3)GlcNAc(2). In view of the determined N-glycan ensemble, the immunoreactivity of gpMuc was ascribed to the presence of core (beta 1-2)-linked xylose- and core alpha (1-3)-linked fucose-modified N-glycan chains.

Publication Types: PMID: 17006651 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
16. Velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens) extracts: impact on Meloidogyne incognita survival and on Lycopersicon esculentum and Lactuca sativa germination and growth.

Zasada IA, Klassen W, Meyer SL, Codallo M, Abdul-Baki AA.

USDA, ARS, Nematology Laboratory, Bldg 011A, Rm 165B, BARC-West, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350, USA. zasadai@ba.ars.usda.gov

Velvetbean (Mucuna spp.) is a summer annual that has been used as a cover crop to reduce erosion, fix nitrogen and suppress weeds and plant-parasitic nematodes. Crude aqueous extracts (1:15 dry weight plant/volume water) were made from velvetbean plant parts, and various concentrations of the extracts were evaluated in vitro for toxicities to different stages of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and for suppression of hypocotyl and root growth and inhibition of germination of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Germination was only affected by the full-strength extract from leaf blades. Lettuce root growth was the most sensitive indicator of allelopathic activity of the plant part extracts. Lettuce and tomato root growth was more sensitive to the extract from main roots than to extracts of other plant parts, with lethal concentration (LC50) values of 1.2 and 1.1% respectively. Meloidogyne incognita egg hatch was less sensitive to extracts from velvetbean than the juvenile (J2) stage. There was no difference among LC50 values of the extracts from different plant parts against the egg stage. Based on LC50 values, the extract from fine roots was the least toxic to J2 (LC50 39.9%), and the extract from vines the most toxic (LC50 7.8%). The effects of the extracts were nematicidal because LC50 values did not change when the extracts were removed and replaced with water. Copyright (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.

PMID: 16953489 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
17. The influence of kosmotropic and chaotropic salts on the functional properties of Mucuna pruriens protein isolate.

Adebowale YA, Adebowale KO.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. adebowal@ictp.trieste.it

The influence of chaotropic and kosmotropic salts on Mucuna pruriens protein isolates was investigated. Protein solubility profile indicated that solubility was minimal at the isoelectric point of the protein isolate (4.0) while the solubility was maximal at pH 10.0 in all salt solutions. Chaotropes (I(-), ClO(4)(-) and SCN(-)) exhibit better protein solubility than the kosmotropes (SO(4)(2-), Cl(-) and Br(-)). Increase in protein solubility follows the Hofmeister series: NaSO(4)<NaCl<NaBr<NaI<NaClO(4)<NaSCN. Maximal water absorption capacity was recorded at low concentration of all the salts (0.1M). The water absorption capacity reduced as the concentration of the salts was increased to 2.0M. Kosmotropic salts exhibited better water absorption capacity than chaotropic salts. Both foaming capacity and stability were better in chaotropic salts compared with kosmotopic salts. Maximal foam capacities and stability were observed in protein solutions at 0.1M concentration. However the foam capacity and stability decreased as the concentration was increased further to 2.0M. The result indicates that emulsion activity index (EAI) and emulsion stability index (ESI) was reduced as the concentration of salts in each protein solution was increased. Protein solutions which contained NaSCN exhibited the highest emulsifying properties while those in Na(2)SO(4) recorded the lowest emulsifying properties. In addition, chaotropic salts had better emulsifying properties compared with kosmotropic salts. Increase in emulsifying activity follows the Hofmeister series. The least gelation concentration increased as the concentration of the salts increased. However chaotropic salts exhibited better gelation properties than kosmotropic salts.

Publication Types: PMID: 16875729 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18. Alternative food/feed perspectives of an underutilized legume Mucuna pruriens var. utilis--a review.

Pugalenthi M, Vadivel V, Siddhuraju P.

Department of Biotechnology, Karpagam Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, 641021, Tamil Nadu, India. pugalmuthiah@rediffmail.com

Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, an underutilized tropical legume has a nutritional quality comparable to soya beans and other conventional legumes as it contains similar proportions of protein, lipid, minerals, and other nutrients. The beans have been traditionally used as a food in a number of countries, viz., India, Philippines, Nigeria, Ghana, Brazil, and Malawi. Recently, the velvet beans are exploited as a protein source in the diets of fish, poultry, pig, and cattle after subjected to appropriate processing methods. Although the velvet beans contain high levels of protein and carbohydrate, their utilization is limited due to the presence of a number of antinutritional/antiphysiological compounds, phenolics, tannins, L-Dopa, lectins, protease inhibitors, etc., which may reduce the nutrient utilization. Unfortunately, even though many researchers all over the world working on Mucuna, only scanty and conflicting information are available regarding its utilization as a food/feed and no scientific gathering to date has focused on the food/feed applications of Mucuna. Hence, the present review has been emphasized on the nutritional potential of this underutilized, nonconventional legume and current state of its utilization as food/feed for both human beings and livestock throughout the world.

Publication Types: PMID: 16395632 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19. Antidiabetic oligocyclitols in seeds of Mucuna pruriens.

Donati D, Lampariello LR, Pagani R, Guerranti R, Cinci G, Marinello E.

Department of Chemistry, University of Siena, Via A. Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy.

Using a combination of chromatographic and NMR techniques, the presence of D-chiro-inositol and its two galacto-derivatives is demonstrated in Mucuna pruriens seeds. The quantities detected explain the well-established antiglycaemic effect of Mucuna pruriens seeds. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 16372373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
20. Nutritional and antinutritional characteristics of seven South Indian wild legumes.

Vadivel V, Janardhanan K.

Indian Cardamom Research Institute, Spices Board, Myladumpara, Kailasanadu 685 553, Kerala, India. vadivelvds@rediffmail.com

Seeds from seven species of wild legumes of the South India were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral profiles, amino acid profiles of total seed protein, in vitro protein digestibility, and certain antinutritional factors to assess their potential as alternative sources of protein crops. The major findings of the study were as follows: crude protein ranged from 20.3 to 35.0%, crude lipid 3.1-9.6%, crude fiber 5.9-12.1%, ash 2.7-5.1%, and carbohydrates 49.2-61.8%. Minerals viz., sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese occurred in the range 42.9-135.9, 556.2-1639.5, 304.5-572.2, 174.9-686.7, 98.4-947.8, 3.6-16.4, 0.2-1.2, 2.0-30.0, and 1.0-3.9 mg/100 g seed flour, respectively. Profiles of amino acids of total seed proteins detected in the present study revealed that levels of valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, isoleucine, and histidine of all the seven wild legume seed samples, threonine of Canavalia ensiformis and C. gladiata, leucine of Mucuna pruriens var. pruriens, and lysine of Cassia floribunda and C. obtusifolia were found to be higher than FAO/WHO (1991) requirement pattern. The in vitro protein digestibility of the legumes under study ranged from 63.39 to 83.32%. Antinutritional factors such as total free phenolics ranged from 0.41 to 5.96%, tannins from 0.04 to 0.60%, L-DOPA from 1.34 to 8.37% and trypsin inhibitor activity from 13.48 to 65.43 TIU/mg protein. The detected antinutritional factors probably have little nutritional significance if the seeds are properly processed.

Publication Types: PMID: 16021834 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

21. Distribution of L-DOPA in the root of velvet bean plant (Mucuna pruriens L.) and gravity.

Tomita-Yokotani K, Hashimoto H, Fujii Y, Nakamura T, Yamashita M.

University of Tsukuba.

Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens L.) has been found that the degree of suppression on the lettuce root growth by velvet bean was less on the 3D-clinorotation. The number and growth of adventitious root in velvet bean differed among the clinostated and control group. L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is known to be the major substance in the allelopathy of velvet bean plant, released from its root. Since L-DOPA is a precursor of melanin pigment, and is easily converted to melanin by oxidation, locality of L-DOPA production in the plant body can be seen through pigmentation. The amount of L-DOPA was analyzed by HPLC and LC-ESI/MS. The distribution of L-DOPA in the root was different among the ground control condition and pseudo-microgravity.

PMID: 15858373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22. Mucuna pruriens in Parkinson's disease: a double blind clinical and pharmacological study.

Katzenschlager R, Evans A, Manson A, Patsalos PN, Ratnaraj N, Watt H, Timmermann L, Van der Giessen R, Lees AJ.


National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, UK.

BACKGROUND: The seed powder of the leguminous plant, Mucuna pruriens has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for diseases including parkinsonism. We have assessed the clinical effects and levodopa (L-dopa) pharmacokinetics following two different doses of mucuna preparation and compared them with standard L-dopa/carbidopa (LD/CD). METHODS: Eight Parkinson's disease patients with a short duration L-dopa response and on period dyskinesias completed a randomised, controlled, double blind crossover trial. Patients were challenged with single doses of 200/50 mg LD/CD, and 15 and 30 g of mucuna preparation in randomised order at weekly intervals. L-dopa pharmacokinetics were determined, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and tapping speed were obtained at baseline and repeatedly during the 4 h following drug ingestion. Dyskinesias were assessed using modified AIMS and Goetz scales. RESULTS: Compared with standard LD/CD, the 30 g mucuna preparation led to a considerably faster onset of effect (34.6 v 68.5 min; p = 0.021), reflected in shorter latencies to peak L-dopa plasma concentrations. Mean on time was 21.9% (37 min) longer with 30 g mucuna than with LD/CD (p = 0.021); peak L-dopa plasma concentrations were 110% higher and the area under the plasma concentration v time curve (area under curve) was 165.3% larger (p = 0.012). No significant differences in dyskinesias or tolerability occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid onset of action and longer on time without concomitant increase in dyskinesias on mucuna seed powder formulation suggest that this natural source of L-dopa might possess advantages over conventional L-dopa preparations in the long term management of PD. Assessment of long term efficacy and tolerability in a randomised, controlled study is warranted.

Publication Types: PMID: 15548480 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC1738871

23. Neuroprotective effects of the antiparkinson drug Mucuna pruriens.

Manyam BV, Dhanasekaran M, Hare TA.

Department of Neurology, Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, TX 76508, USA. bmanyam@swmail.sw.org

Mucuna pruriens possesses significantly higher antiparkinson activity compared with levodopa in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease. The present study evaluated the neurorestorative effect of Mucuna pruriens cotyledon powder on the nigrostriatal tract of 6-OHDA lesioned rats. Mucuna pruriens cotyledon powder significantly increased the brain mitochondrial complex-I activity but did not affect the total monoamine oxidase activity (in vitro). Unlike synthetic levodopa treatment, Mucuna pruriens cotyledon powder treatment significantly restored the endogenous levodopa, dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin content in the substantia nigra. Nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and coenzyme Q-10, that are shown to have a therapeutic benefit in Parkinson's disease, were present in the Mucuna pruriens cotyledon powder. Earlier studies showed that Mucuna pruriens treatment controls the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This additional finding of a neurorestorative benefit by Mucuna pruriens cotyledon powder on the degenerating dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra may be due to increased complex-I activity and the presence of NADH and coenzyme Q-10. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types: PMID: 15478206 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24. Alkaloidal constituents of Mucuna pruriens seeds.

Misra L, Wagner H.

Phytochemistry Division, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, PO--CIMAP, Lucknow 226 015, India. laxmisra@hotmail.com

The seeds of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. after chemical analysis afforded four tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids which have been isolated for the first time from M. pruriens. Out of them, two are new whose structures have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

PMID: 15451318 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25. Protection of Mucuna pruriens seeds against Echis carinatus venom is exerted through a multiform glycoprotein whose oligosaccharide chains are functional in this role.

Guerranti R, Aguiyi JC, Ogueli IG, Onorati G, Neri S, Rosati F, Del Buono F, Lampariello R, Pagani R, Marinello E.


Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Scienze Endocrino-metaboliche e Biochimica, Universitŕ di Siena, Via A. Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy. guerranti@unisi.it

In a previous paper we demonstrated that extracts of Mucuna pruriens seeds (MPE) protect mice against Echis carinatus venom (EV) by an immunological mechanism. In this paper we demonstrate that the MPE immunogen generating the antibody that cross-reacts with the venom proteins is a multiform glycoprotein (gpMuc) whose immunogenic properties mainly reside in its glycan-chains. The glycoprotein was purified from the protein extract of M. pruriens seeds using Concanavalin A affinity chromatography. Using 2-D gel electrophoresis it separated into seven isoforms having MWs in the range from 20.3 to 28.7 kDa and pIs from 4.8 to 6.5. N-terminal sequencing of these spots revealed close similarity since all of them contained the consensus sequence DDREPV-DT found in soybean Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor. We suggest that gpMuc contains both N- and O-glycans. Mild alkaline treatment but not PNGase F led to loss of reactivity, indicating that O-glycans are probably involved in the antigenicity of gpMuc. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

Publication Types: PMID: 15369777 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

26. Effect of acetylation and succinylation on solubility profile, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying properties of mucuna bean (Mucuna pruriens) protein concentrate.

Lawal OS, Adebowale KO.

Department of Chemical Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria.

Mucuna protein concentrate was acylated with succinic and acetic anhydride. The effects of acylation on solubility, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying properties were investigated. The pH-dependent solubility profile of unmodified mucuna protein concentrate (U-mpc) showed a decrease in solubility with decrease in pH and resolubilisation at pH values acidic to isoelectric pH (pH 4). Apart from pH 2, both acetylated mucuna protein concentrates (A-mpc) and succinylated mucuna protein concentrate (S-mpc) had improved solubility over the unmodified derivative. Acylation increased the water absorption capacity (WAC) at all levels of ionic strength (0.1-1.0 M). WAC of the protein samples increased with increase in ionic strength up to 0.2 M after which a decline occurred with increase in ionic strength from 0.4-1.0 M. When protein solutions were prepared in salts of various ions, increase in WAC followed the Hofmeister series in the order: NaSCN < NaClO4 < NaI < NaBr < NaCl < Na2SO. Acetylation improved the oil absorption capacity while the lipophilic tendency reduced the following succinylation. Emulsifying capacity increased with increase in concentration up to 2, 4 and 5% w/v for U-mpc, A-mpc and S-mpc, respectively, after which an increase in concentration reduced the emulsifying capacity. Both acetylation and succinylation significantly (P < 0.05) improved the emulsifying capacity at pH 4-10. Initial increase in ionic strength up to 0.4 M for U-mpc and 0.4 M for A-mpc and S-mpc increased the emulsion capacity progressively. Further increase in ionic strength reduced emulsion capacity (EC). Contrary to the effect of various salts on WAC, increase in EC generally follows the series Na2SO4 < NaCl < NaBr < NaI < NaClO4 < NaSCN. At all levels of ionic strength studied, S-mpc had a better emulsifying activity (EA) than both A-mpc and U-mpc. EA and emulsifying stability (ES) were pH-dependent. Maximum EA and ES were recorded at pH 10. ES of protein derivatives were higher than those of U-mpc in the range of pH 4-10 but lower at pH 2. Studies revealed that both A-mpc and S-mpc had better ES and EA than the unmodified derivative when protein solutions were prepared in salts of various anions.

Publication Types: PMID: 15146970 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
27. Effect of antiparkinson drug HP-200 (Mucuna pruriens) on the central monoaminergic neurotransmitters.

Manyam BV, Dhanasekaran M, Hare TA.

Department of Neurology, Scott & White Clinic and Texas A & M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, TX 76508, USA. bmanyam@swmail.sw.org

HP-200, which contains Mucuna pruriens endocarp, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Mucuna pruriens endocarp has also been shown to be more effective compared to synthetic levodopa in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. The present study was designed to elucidate the long-term effect of Mucuna pruriens endocarp in HP-200 on monoaminergic neurotransmitters and its metabolite in various regions of the rat brain. HP-200 at a dose of 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg/day was mixed with rat chow and fed daily ad lib to Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 for each group) for 52 weeks. Controls (n = 6) received no drug. Random assignment was made for doses and control. The rats were sacrificed at the end of 52 weeks and the neurotransmitters were analyzed in the cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra and striatum. Oral administration of Mucuna pruriens endocarp in the form of HP-200 had a significant effect on dopamine content in the cortex with no significant effect on levodopa, norepinephrine or dopamine, serotonin, and their metabolites- HVA, DOPAC and 5-HIAA in the nigrostriatal tract. The failure of Mucuna pruriens endocarp to significantly affect dopamine metabolism in the striatonigral tract along with its ability to improve Parkinsonian symptoms in the 6-hydorxydopamine animal model and humans may suggest that its antiparkinson effect may be due to components other than levodopa or that it has an levodopa enhancing effect. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types: PMID: 15022157 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28. Preference of sheep for three forms of mucuna forage and the effect of supplementation with mucuna forage on the performance of sheep.

Adjorlolo LK, Amaning-Kwarteng K, Fianu FK.

Agricultural Research Station, University of Ghana, PO Box 38, Legon-Accra, Ghana, West Africa. kofiadjorlolo@yahoo.co.uk

Assessment of the preference of sheep for fresh, dried or ensiled forms of mucuna (Mucuna pruriens var utilis) forage was followed by investigations into the effect of supplementing straw-based diets with the forage. Four sheep were offered fresh, dried and ensiled forms of the forage in a cafeteria style to assess their preference. In the second experiment, 20 sheep were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments, namely, alkali-treated straw only (M0), treated straw supplemented with mucuna forage at 0.3% (M10), 0.6% (M20) or 0.75% (M25) of body weight (approximately 10%, 20% and 25%, respectively, of the total dry matter intake). The daily feed intakes were determined and the sheep were weighed weekly for 10 weeks. The sheep showed a marked preference for fresh mucuna forage over either the dried or ensiled forms. The total dry matter intake increased by 15% and 21%, respectively, with M20 and M25. All the groups lost weight over the feeding period. However, only M0 gave weight losses during the second half of the feeding period. The feed conversion efficiency followed a trend similar to that for weight gains. M20 had the greatest effect on growth and feed conversion efficiency.

Publication Types: PMID: 14998313 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
29. Effects of crude extracts of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) and Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against the protozoan fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

Ekanem AP, Obiekezie A, Kloas W, Knopf K.

Institute of Oceanography, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115, Calabar, Nigeria.

The ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is among the most pathogenic parasites of fish maintained in captivity. In the present study, the effects of the crude methanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens and the petroleum-ether extract of seeds of Carica papaya against I. multifiliis were investigated under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) infected with the parasites were immersed for 72 h in baths with M. pruriens extract, and for 96 h in baths with C. papaya extract. There was a 90% reduction in numbers of I. multifiliis on fish after treatment in baths of each plant extract at 200 mg l(-1 )compared to untreated controls. Consequently, parasite-induced fish mortality was reduced significantly. A complete interruption of trophont recruitment was achieved by immersion in the M. pruriens extract. In vitro tests led to a 100% mortality of I. multifiliis in 150 mg/l M. pruriens extract, and in 200 mg/l of C. papaya extract after 6 h. Although the active constituents of the medicinal plant extracts are still unknown, we have demonstrated that they have potential for effective control of I. multifiliis.

Publication Types: PMID: 14735356 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30. Volatile allelopathy in velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens [correction of pruiens] L.) and gravity.

Tomita-Yokotani K, Fujii Y, Yoshida S, Hashimoto H, Yamashita M.


Institute of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba.

Allelopathy caused by volatile compounds was studied with velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens [correction of prueiens] L.). Preparatory experiment was conducted to identify the relationship between action of volatiles and gravity. The experimental protocol was defined and tested to study on volatile allelopathy of velvet bean. Root growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings was inhibited by volatile gas from velvet bean seedlings planted in Agripot. In this study, it was shown that ten-day velvet bean seedling could exhibit the volatile allelopathic ability. Growth chambers for volatile experiment were designed. Velvet bean seed can germinate in a 3-ml small vial.

Publication Types: PMID: 14676381 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

31. Epidemiology and treatment of Parkinson's disease in India.

Singhal B, Lalkaka J, Sankhla C.

Medical Research Center, Bombay Hospital 12, Marine Lines, Mumbai 400 020, India. bssingl@vsnl.com

Parkinson's disease (PD) has a low prevalence in India except in the small Parsi community where Bharucha et al. found a high prevalence. Although early onset PD and familial cases have been described from India, no genetic mutations have as yet been identified. PD has been known in India since ancient days and the powder of Mucuna Pruriens seeds was used for its treatment. The present day management of PD in India is similar to that in the other countries. Unfortunately, lack of awareness, limitation of human resources and cost factors deny the benefits of therapy to many patients.

Publication Types: PMID: 12915075 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
32. Reduced allelopathic inhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) growth caused by velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) under 3D-clinorotation.

Tomita-YokotYani K, Fujii , Hashimoto H, Yamashita M.

Institute of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. kaboka@sakura.cc.tsukuba.ac.jp

Allelopathy between Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean) and Lactuca sativa (lettuce) was studied under 3D-clinorotation. Growth of both roots and shoots of lettuce seedlings was suppressed by the presence of velvet bean. The degree of suppression was less on the clinostat compared to the normal static earth gravity. L-DOPA (L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is known to be a major substance in allelopathy of velvet bean. Amount of L-DOPA diffused out from a sintered filter paper into agar medium was compared between clinorotation and control group, and found no significant difference. It was concluded that some factors related to release, transport, and sensing phenomena of allelopathic substances may be responsible to the new findings in this study.

Publication Types: PMID: 12897456 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
33. Allelopathy in the natural and agricultural ecosystems and isolation of potent allelochemicals from Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) and Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa).

Fujii Y.

Chemical Ecology Unit, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. yfujii@affrc.go.jp

We have studied on allelopathy of plants and developed methods to identify the effective substances in root exudates, leaf leacheate, and volatile chemicals emitted from plants. We found traditional cover plants that show allelopathic activity are useful for weed control. It could eliminate the use of synthetic chemicals for this purpose. Allelopathy is a natural power of plants to protect themselves by producing natural organic chemicals. Some endemic plants in Asia, already known by farmers in the region, as either cover crops used in intercropping, hedgerow, or agroforestry, were found to possess strong allelopathic abilities. Our group identified several allelochemicals from these plants. These allelopathic cover crops, mostly leguminous plants, provide protein rich food, and grow easily without artificial fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. In this regards, these allelopathic cover crops could save food shortage in rural area, and are useful for environmental conservation. Screenings of allelopathic plants by specific bioassays and field tests have been conducted. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) and Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) are two promising species for the practical application of allelopathy. An amino acid, L-DOPA, unusual in plants, plays an important role as allelochemical in Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens). Hairy vetch is the most promising cover plant for the weed control in orchard, vegetable and rice production and even for landscape amendment in abandoned field in Japan. We have isolated "cyanamide", a well known nitrogen fertilizer, from Hairy vetch. This is the first finding of naturally produced cyanamide in the world.

PMID: 12897455 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34. Symbiotic performance of herbaceous legumes in tropical cover cropping systems.

Ibewiro B, Onuh M, Sanginga N, Bernard V, Merckx R.

Laboratory of Soil Fertility and Soil Biology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium. bibewiro@cdfa.gov

Increasing use of herbaceous legumes such as mucuna ( Mucuna pruriens var. utilis [Wright] Bruck) and lablab ( Lablab purpureus [L.] Sweet) in the derived savannas of West Africa can be attributed to their potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2). The effects of management practices on N2 fixation in mucuna and lablab were examined using 15N isotope dilution technique. Dry matter yield of both legumes at 12 weeks was two to five times more in in situ mulch (IM) than live mulch (LM) systems. Land Equivalent Ratios, however, showed 8 to 30% more efficient utilization of resources required for biomass production under LM than IM systems. Live mulching reduced nodule numbers in the legumes by one third compared to values in the IM systems. Similarly, nodule mass was reduced by 34 to 58% under LM compared to the IM systems. The proportion of fixed N2 in the legumes was 18% higher in LM than IM systems. Except for inoculated mucuna, the amounts of N fixed by both legumes were greater in IM than LM systems. Rhizobia inoculation of the legumes did not significantly increase N2 fixation compared to uninoculated plots. Application of N fertilizer reduced N2 fixed in the legumes by 36 to 51% compared to inoculated or uninoculated systems. The implications of cover cropping, N fertilization, and rhizobia inoculation on N contributions of legumes into tropical low-input systems were discussed.

Publication Types: PMID: 12805778 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35. Natural abundance carbon isotope composition of isoprene reflects incomplete coupling between isoprene synthesis and photosynthetic carbon flow.

Affek HP, Yakir D.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Energy Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

Isoprene emission from leaves is dynamically coupled to photosynthesis through the use of primary and recent photosynthate in the chloroplast. However, natural abundance carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) measurements in myrtle (Myrtus communis), buckthorn (Rhamnus alaternus), and velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) showed that only 72% to 91% of the variations in the delta(13)C values of fixed carbon were reflected in the delta(13)C values of concurrently emitted isoprene. The results indicated that 9% to 28% carbon was contributed from alternative, slow turnover, carbon source(s). This contribution increased when photosynthesis was inhibited by CO(2)-free air. The observed variations in the delta(13)C of isoprene under ambient and CO(2)-free air were consistent with contributions to isoprene synthesis in the chloroplast from pyruvate associated with cytosolic Glc metabolism. Irrespective of alternative carbon source(s), isoprene was depleted in (13)C relative to mean photosynthetically fixed carbon by 4 per thousand to 11 per thousand. Variable (13)C discrimination, its increase by partially inhibiting isoprene synthesis with fosmidomicin, and the associated accumulation of pyruvate suggested that the main isotopic discrimination step was the deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase reaction.

PMID: 12692331 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC166928

37. Amelioration of experimental diabetic neuropathy and gastropathy in rats following oral administration of plant (Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens and Tinospora cordifolia) extracts.

Grover JK, Rathi SS, Vats V.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029, India. jkgrover@hotmail.com

Extract of M. charantia (200 mg/kg), E. jambolana (200 mg/kg), M. pruriens (200 mg/kg) and T. cordifolia (400 mg/kg) was administered for 50 days in STZ induced diabetic mice, the plasma glucose concentration was reduced by 24.4, 20.84, 7.45 and 9.07% respectively. Tail flick latency (TFL) and gastric transit percentage were significantly higher in diabetic controls versus normal controls. M. charantia and E. jambolana modified it favorably while M. pruriens and T. cordifolia did not exert any favorable change.

PMID: 12635695 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37. Prevention of experimental diabetic cataract by Indian Ayurvedic plant extracts.

Rathi SS, Grover JK, Vikrant V, Biswas NR.

Department of Pharmacology, Dr Rajendra Prasad Center of Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi - 110029, India.

The efficacy of Momordica charantia (MC), Eugenia jambolana (EJ), Tinospora cordifolia (TC) and Mucuna pruriens (MP) was assessed in the prevention of murine alloxan dibetic cataract. Alloxan (120 mg/kg) was used as the diabetogenic agent. While controls and diabetic controls did not receive any plant extract, treated rats received lyophilized aqueous extract of MC and EJ (200 mg/kg p.o.), alcohol extract of TC (400 mg/kg) and MP (200 mg/kg p.o.) every day until 4 months. Serum glucose concentration was assessed and cataracts examined with both the naked eye and through a slit lamp. Of the eight animals in the diabetic control group, four developed cortical cataract (stage IV) by day 90 while the remaining four developed it by day 100. The incidence rate of cataract in MC, EJ, TC and MP treated groups at 120 days was only 0, 0, 1 and 2. Oral feeding of MC, EJ, TC and MP extracts for 1 month produced a fall of 64.33%, 55.62%, 38.01% and 40.17%, respectively, in the serum glucose levels in comparison with the 48 h level. After 2 months of treatment, the respective values were 66.96%, 59.85%, 40.41% and 45.63%. MC and EJ prevented the development of cataract while the protective effect was less with TC and MP along with a significant reduction of plasma glucose levels (p < 0.001). Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 12458487 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
38. Effect of the alcohol extract of the seeds of Mucuna pruriens on free radicals and oxidative stress in albino rats.

Tripathi YB, Upadhyay AK.

Biochemistry Section, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India.

In vitro and in vivo studies were made with an alcohol extract of the seeds of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) to investigate its antioxidant property. In vitro studies were carried out in rat liver homogenate to investigate the chemical interaction of various phytochemicals with different species of free radicals. The effect was also checked on iron-induced lipid peroxidation, oxidation of GSH content, and its interaction with hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. There was no change on the rate of aerial oxidation of GSH content but it significantly inhibited FeSO(4) induced lipid peroxidation. It also inhibited the specific chemical reactions induced by superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The removal of these species was through direct chemical interaction. An in vivo study on albino rats for 30 days showed no toxic effect up to a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight, on oral administration. There was no change in the level of TBA-reactive substances, reduced glutathione content and SOD activity in the liver. The activity of serum GOT, GPT and alkaline phosphatase was also unchanged. Thus it could be concluded that the alcohol extract of the seeds of M. pruriens has an antilipid peroxidation property, which is mediated through the removal of superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types: PMID: 12237810 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39. The effect of Momordica charantia and Mucuna pruriens in experimental diabetes and their effect on key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

Rathi SS, Grover JK, Vats V.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi.

The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed traditional plant therapies. Two such plants, i.e. Momordica charantia (MC) and Mucuna pruriens (MP), earlier shown to reduce hyperglycaemia, were assessed for their anti hyperglycaemic effect on varying degrees of hyperglycaemia and diabetic complications. Alcohol and aqueous extracts of MC (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day) and only an alcohol extract of MP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day) were evaluated in a pilot study (plasma glucose >180 mg/dL, 21 days), a chronic study in alloxanized rats (plasma glucose >280mg/dL, 120 days) and streptozotocin (STZ) mice (plasma glucose >400 mg/dL, 60 days). In the pilot study, the maximum antihyperglycaemic effect occurred with an aqueous extract of MC at week 3 and an alcohol extract of MP at week 6 at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day. In chronic alloxanized rats, the selected dose of MC led to a significant fall of 64.33%, 66.96%, 69.7% and 70.53% in plasma glucose levels at 1, 2, 3 and 4 months, respectively. MP showed a decrease of 40.71%, 45.63%, 50.33% and 51.01% at the same time period. In chronic STZ diabetic mice, MC led to a mean reduction of 15.37%, 18.68% and 22.86% in plasma glucose levels on days 40, 50 and 60 of sampling while MP had no significant effect. The alteration in hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content and hepatic glucokinase, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate and phosphofructokinase levels in diabetic mice were partially restored by MC but not by MP. The mechanism of action of MC and MP is discussed.

PMID: 12164268 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

40. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.

Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110049, India. jkgrover@hotmail.com

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity.

Publication Types: PMID: 12020931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

41. Proteins from Mucuna pruriens and enzymes from Echis carinatus venom: characterization and cross-reactions.

Guerranti R, Aguiyi JC, Neri S, Leoncini R, Pagani R, Marinello E.

Institute of Biochemistry and Enzymology, University of Siena, Via A. Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy.

Mucuna pruriens seeds have been widely used against snakebite in traditional medicine. The antivenin property of a water extract of seeds was assessed in vivo in mice. The serum of mice treated with extract was tested for its immunological properties. Two proteins of Echis carinatus venom with apparent molecular masses of 25 and 16 kDa were detected by Western blot analysis carried out using IgG of mice immunized with extract or its partially purified protein fractions. By enzymatic in-gel digestion and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis of immunoreactive venom proteins, phospholipase A(2,) the most toxic enzyme of snake venom, was identified. These results demonstrate that the observed antivenin activity has an immune mechanism. Antibodies of mice treated with non-lethal doses of venom reacted against some proteins of M. pruriens extract. Proteins of E. carinatus venom and M. pruriens extract have at least one epitope in common as confirmed by immunodiffusion assay.

PMID: 11867642 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

42. Blood chemistry of rats pretreated with Mucuna pruriens seed aqueous extract MP101UJ after Echis carinatus venom challenge.

Aguiyi JC, Guerranti R, Pagani R, Marinello E.

Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria. Aguiyi@unisi.it

The effect of a lethal Echis carinatus venom on serum enzyme levels and blood plasma coagulation parameters in rats pretreated with Mucuna pruriens seed aqueous extract MP101UJ (21 mg/kg body wt) 24 h and 3 wk before i.p venom injection (0.50 mg/kg rat) and rats injected with venom alone (0.50 mg/kg body wt) was investigated. The enzyme levels and coagulation parameter levels were measured 4 h after venom administration. The results showed that the increased enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), creatinine kinase (CK) and changed coagulation parameters D-Dimer and Quick levels due to the venom effect were inhibited by M. pruriens seed aqueous extract MP101UJ in pretreated rats. Rats pretreated with a single dose (21 mg/kg and multiple doses 21 mg/kg rat) of extract MP101UJ maintained the normal enzyme levels and showed an anticoagulant effect as evidenced by the high PTT level which was also observed in venom treated animals. D-Dimer and Quick values were normal. However, the extract MP101UJ appeared to significantly inhibit the lethal venom induced myotoxic, cytotoxic and coagulation activities in experimental animals. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types: PMID: 11746865 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

43. . Traditional Indian anti-diabetic plants attenuate progression of renal damage in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice.

Grover JK, Vats V, Rathi SS, Dawar R.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, 110049, New Delhi, India

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of daily oral feeding Momordica charantia (MC) (200 mg/kg), Eugenia jambolana (EJ) (200 mg/kg), Mucuna pruriens (MP) (200 mg/kg) and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) extracts for 40 days on blood glucose concentrations and kidney functions in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Plasma glucose levels, body weight, urine volume and urinary albumin levels were monitored on every 10th day over a 40-day period while plasma creatinine levels were assessed at the beginning and end of experiment. Renal hypertrophy was assessed as the ratio between the kidney weight and total body weight. Plasma glucose concentrations in STZ-diabetic mice were reduced by the administration of extracts of MC, EJ, TC and MP by 24.4, 20.84, 7.45 and 9.07%, respectively (P<0.005 for MC, EJ, MP and P<0.05 for TC). Urine volume was significantly higher (P<0.005) in diabetic controls and MC, EJ, MP and TC treatment prevented polyuria (P<0.001, 0.0001, 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). After 10 days of STZ administration urinary albumin levels (UAE) were over 6 fold higher in diabetic controls as compared to normal controls. Treatment with MC, EJ, MP and TC significantly prevented the rise in UAE levels from day 0 to 40 in comparison to diabetic controls (P<0.0001, 0.0001, 0.05, 0.05, respectively). Renal hypertrophy was significantly higher in diabetic controls as compared to non-diabetic controls. MC and EJ partially but significantly (P<0.05) prevented renal hypertrophy as compared to diabetic controls. TC and MP failed to modify renal hypertrophy. Results indicate that these plant drugs should be studied further.

PMID: 11448544 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

44.Effect of various domestic processing methods on antinutrients and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of two indigenous varieties of Indian tribal pulse, Mucuna pruriens Var. utilis.

Siddhuraju P, Becker K.

Department of Animal Nutrition and Aquaculture, Institute for Animal Production in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Hohenheim (480), D-70593 Stuttgart, Germany.

The effect of various domestic processing methods on antinutrients and starch fractions and in vitro protein and starch digestibilities of white and black varieties of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis was studied. Cooking or autoclaving of both raw seeds and presoaked seeds in different solutions (water, tamarind extract, sodium bicarbonate, and citric acid) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the content of total phenolics, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities, and L-dopa compared to soaking or dry heating techniques. The germination processes (24 and 48 h) were also effective in the reduction of various antinutrients, although this reduction appeared to be more pronounced in a prolonged period of germination (72 h). Water soaking followed by dehusking was found to be ineffective in the reduction of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities in both varieties. All of the treatments were effective in significantly (p < 0.05) reducing the resistant starch content in the presently investigated samples. Cooking as well as autoclaving brought about a more significant (p < 0.05) improvement in the digestibility of protein and starch compared to germination and dry heat treatment. Moreover, among the different processing techniques, soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution followed by cooking (29.6-34.8%) or autoclaving (33.0-37.2%) seemed to be the best method for improving starch digestibility.

Publication Types: PMID: 11410009 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

45. Studies on the nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of three different germplasm seed materials of an under-utilized tropical legume, Mucuna pruriens var. utilis.

Siddhuraju P, Becker K, Makkar HP.

Department of Animal Nutrition and Aquaculture, Institute for Animal Production in the Tropics and Subtropics (480), University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart, Germany.

Two different germplasms of a white variety and one germplasm of a black variety of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as their nutritional and antinutritional characteristics. All germplasms had higher grain weight, density, hydration, and swelling capacity than other common legumes. The dehulled samples contained 303.2-335.5 g(-1) protein and 46.1-53.5 g x kg(-1) lipid, and these values were higher than the respective whole seeds. The levels of macro- and microelements in both whole and dehulled seeds were comparable to those in common pulses. All germplasms had a high dietary fiber content (18-19.5%), made up of mainly insoluble dietary fiber (DF). Seed lipids were high in unsaturated fatty acids (64.7-66.9%), specifically linoleic acid (48-49%). Whole and dehulled seeds of the white variety from Salem were particularly rich in sulfur-containing amino acids with significantly higher levels of in vitro protein digestibility than the other two germplasms. All germplasms had high levels of total phenols and phytate, trypsin, and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities, but were low in tannins, saponins, and alpha-amylase inhibitor activity. Only weak hemagglutinating activity against cow erythrocytes and no hemagglutinating activity against human erythrocytes (O) was observed in all the samples. Dehulled seeds were higher in total starch, including resistant starch and oligosaccharides (with verbascose as the major fraction) than the respective whole seeds. Both whole and dehulled samples of the white variety of Salem germplasm showed significantly lower concentrations of L-dopa, nonmethylated, and methylated tetrahydroisoquinolines than the respective whole and dehulled samples of other germplasms. In general, dehulling didn't affect the overall nutritional status in any of the presently investigated samples.

Publication Types: PMID: 11312778 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

46. Effects of Mucuna pruriens extract on activation of prothrombin by Echis carinatus venom.

Guerranti R, Aguiyi JC, Errico E, Pagani R, Marinello E.

Institute of Biochemistry and Enzymology, University of Siena, Via A. Moro, 53100, Siena, Italy. guerranti@unisi.it

Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC has long been used as a medicinal plant by traditional healers. The validity of the claims made for this plant has also been tested scientifically. Some of its properties are probably linked to high concentrations of dopa since it is useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The antisnake properties of an extract of Mucuna pruriens' seeds (MP101UJ) in vivo were recently demonstrated and one is now investigating its biochemical mechanism. Echis carinatus venom (EV) contains a mixture of proteins that affect the coagulative cascade, causing severe bleeding and haemorrhage. Here the effect of an extract of MP101UJ in prothrombin activation by EV in vitro by clotting and chromogenic assay is studied. An increase in procoagulant activity was found. This could explain the protective effect in vivo.

PMID: 11297847 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

47. Some nutritional properties of the seeds of three Mucuna species.

Prakash D, Niranjan A, Tewari SK.

Protein Chemistry Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow-226 001, India.

The seeds of Mucuna nivea, M. pruriens and M. utilis showed ash 4.3-5.1%, oil 4.9-5.5%, protein 25.9-27.5%, L-dopa 3.6-4.2%, trypsin 28.5-39.7 mg/g and chymotrypsin inhibitor activity 19.3-24.6 mg/g. The trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activity increased in pod hull and seeds while the amount of protein increased in seeds and decreased in pod hull with maturity. The essential amino acid profile was comparable to the FAO pattern (lysine 6.0-6.4%). The fatty acid composition had total unsaturated acids 51.9-55.9%, but were poor in oil contents.

PMID: 11225181 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

48. Nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of velvet bean: an under-utilized food legume in south India.

Vadivel V, Janardhanan K

Department of Botany, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India.

Four accessions of the under-utilized legume, velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (Wall. ex Wight) Bak. ex Burck), collected from three different locations of Western Ghats, South India were analysed for proximate composition, mineral profiles, the protein fractions, amino acid profiles of total seed protein, in vitro protein digestibility and certain anti-nutritional factors to determine their potential as an alternative source to alleviate protein-energy-malnutrition among the people of South India. The major findings of the study were as follows: crude protein ranged from 20.2-29.3%, crude lipid 6.3-7.4%, total dietary fibre 8.7-10.5%, ash 3.3-5.5% and carbohydrates 49.9-61.2%. The energy level of the seed (1562-1597 kJ 100 g-1 DM) was comparable with commonly consumed Indian pulses. Mineral profiles, viz. sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, copper, zinc and manganese ranged from 43.1-150.1, 778.1-1846.0, 393.4-717.7, 174.9-387.6, 98.4-592.1, 10.8-15.0, 0.9-2.2, 5.0-10.9, 3.9-4.3 mg 100(-1) seed flour, respectively. The data on seed protein fractions revealed that the globulins constitute the major bulk of the seed protein as in most legumes. Profiles of amino acids of total seed proteins detected in the present study revealed that they contain relatively higher levels of all essential amino acids except threonine, leucine and lysine in black-coloured seed coat accessions and phenylalanine and tyrosine in white-coloured seed coat accession compared with the FAO/WHO (1991) requirement pattern. The in vitro protein digestibility of the legumes under study ranged from 72.4-76.9%. Anti-nutritional substances like total free phenolics, tannins, L-DOPA, trypsin inhibitor activity and phytohaemagglutinating activity also were investigated. The detected anti-nutritional factors probably have little nutritional significance if the beans are properly processed.

Publication Types: PMID: 11027039 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

49. Association of L-DOPA with recovery following Ayurveda medication in Parkinson's disease.

Nagashayana N, Sankarankutty P, Nampoothiri MR, Mohan PK, Mohanakumar KP.

Department of Kayachikitsa, Govt. Ayurveda College, - 695 001, Thiruvananthapuram, India.

Ayurveda, the Indian system of traditional medicine, uses a concoction of several spices, herbs and minerals for the treatment of diseases. In a clinical prospective study we have evaluated the efficacy of Ayurveda treatment (a concoction in cow's milk of powdered Mucuna pruriens and Hyoscyamus reticulatus seeds and Withania somnifera and Sida cordifolia roots) in 18 clinically diagnosed (with a mean Hoen and Yahr value of 2.22) parkinsonian patients. As per Ayurveda principles, 13 patients underwent both cleansing (for 28 days) and palliative therapy (56 days), 5 patients underwent palliative therapy alone (84 days). Only the former group showed significant improvement in activities of daily living (ADL) and on motor examination as per UPDRS rating. Symptomatically, they exhibited better response in tremor, bradykinesia, stiffness and cramps as compared to the latter group. Excessive salivation worsened in both the groups. Analyses of powdered samples in milk, as administered in patients, revealed about 200 mg of L-DOPA per dose. The study establishes the necessity of cleansing therapy in Ayurveda medication prior to palliative therapy. It also reveals contribution of L-DOPA in the recovery as observed in Parkinson' disease following Ayurveda medication.

PMID: 10930594 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

50 Evaluation of raw and heated velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens) as feed ingredients for broilers.

Del Carmen J, Gernat AG, Myhrman R, Carew LB.

Departamento de Zootecnia, Escuela Agricola Panamericana, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

Velvet bean plants (Mucuna pruriens) are used widely outside the U.S. as a cover crop. The beans (VB), high in protein, contain toxic substances that possibly can be destroyed by heating. Few data are available on the use of VB in poultry nutrition. We examined the effects of raw and dry-roasted VB on broiler performance in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 10, 20, and 30% raw VB were substituted into nutritionally balanced rations fed 0 to 42 d of age. Raw VB caused progressive reductions in growth; at 42 d of age, broilers fed 30% VB weighed 39% of controls. Feed intake declined significantly only with 30% VB. Feed efficiency decreased significantly with 20 and 30% VB. In Experiment 2, 10% raw VB and 10, 20, and 30% heated VB were fed 0 to 42 d. With 10% raw VB, broilers grew significantly slower but feed intake was unchanged. Inclusion of 10% heated VB allowed better growth than raw VB, and by 42 d of age, growth was not significantly different from that of controls. At 20 and 30%, heated VB promoted much better growth and efficiency than raw VB in Experiment 1, but values were significantly lower than those of controls. With 30% heated VB, broilers grew to 66% of control, a marked improvement over raw VB. Carcass yield was unaffected. Trypsin inhibitor activity but not L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) in VB was destroyed by heating. We conclude that dry heating of VB partially destroys its growth-inhibiting factor(s), allowing successful use of 10% heated VB in broiler rations. Higher levels of heated VB reduced broiler performance, although results were much better than those of raw VB.

Publication Types: PMID: 10438131 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

51. Traditional and complementary therapies in Parkinson's disease.

Manyam BV, Sánchez-Ramos JR.


Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Clinic, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, USA.

Parkinson's disease has existed in different parts of the world since ancient times. The first clear description is found in the ancient Indian medical system of Ayurveda under the name Kampavata. Traditional therapies in the form of herbal preparations containing anticholinergics, levodopa, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors were used in the treatment of PD in India, China, and the Amazon basin. Scientific reevaluation of these therapies may be valuable, as shown in the case of Mucuna pruriens and Banisteria caapi. Complementary therapies such as massage therapy, biofeedback, and acupuncture may have beneficial effects for patients and deserve further study.

Publication Types: PMID: 10410773 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

52. Effect of different post-harvest treatments on antinutritional factors in seeds of the tribal pulse, Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.

Vijayakumari K, Siddhuraju P, Janardhanan K.

Department of Botany, Bharathiar University, Tamil Nadu, India.

The effect of soaking, cooking and autoclaving on the levels of certain antinutritional factors present in the tribal pulse, Mucuna pruriens, were studied. The amount of reduction of total free phenolics was found to be greater in sodium bicarbonate solution (56%) compared to distilled water (47%); subjected to cooking and autoclaving these were further reduced to 49%. Autoclaving (45 min) significantly reduced the tannin content (71%). Insignificant reduction in content of L-DOPA was observed in all the processes. Distilled water soaking was found to be ineffective in eliminating lectin activity; whereas very significant reduction was noticed against all the human blood groups ABO without any specificity in samples subjected to cooking and autoclaving. Soaking in distilled water was more effective (27% reduction) than sodium bicarbonate solution (17% reduction) in lowering the contents of phytic acid. Cooking for 90 min and autoclaving for 45 min resulted in eliminating phytic acid to the extent of 18% and 44%, respectively. Loss of HCN was greater under autoclaving (75%) than the other processes studied. Of the three oligosaccharides analysed, soaking effected maximum reduction in the level of stachyose followed by verbascose and raffinose. Autoclaving effected greater reduction (59-81%) compared to ordinary cooking (40-60% reduction). Of all the different treatments studied, autoclaving seemed to be the best method in eliminating the investigated antinutrients more efficiently except L-DOPA.

Publication Types: PMID: 8735780 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

53. An alternative medicine treatment for Parkinson's disease: results of a multicenter clinical trial. HP-200 in Parkinson's Disease Study Group.

[No authors listed]

The natural occurrence of antiparkinsonian drugs in plants--anticholinergics in Datura stramonium, levodopa in Mucuna pruriens and Vicia faba, dopamine agonist activity in Claviceps purpura, and MAO inhibitor activity in Banisteria caapi-are known. Our study examined the efficacy and tolerability of HP-200, derived from Mucuna prurient, in patients with Parkinson's disease. Sixty patients with Parkinson's disease (46 male and 14 female) with a mean (+/- SD) age of 59 +/- 9 years were treated in an open study for 12 weeks. Of these, 26 patients were taking synthetic levodopa/carbidopa formulations before treatment with HP-200, and the remaining 34 were levodopa naive. HP-200, a powder (supplied as a 7.5 g sachet), was mixed with water and given orally. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) was used at baseline and periodically during the 12-week evaluation. Statistically significant reductions in Hoehn and Yahr stage and UPDRS scores were seen from baseline to the end of the 12-week treatment (p < 0.0001, t-test). The group mean (+/- SD) dose for optimal control of symptoms was 6 +/- 3 sachets. Adverse effects were mild and were mainly gastrointestinal in nature. No adverse effects were seen in clinical laboratory reports. HP-200, developed from an alternative medicine source, Ayurveda, was found to be an effective treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease.

Publication Types: PMID: 9395621 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

54. The effect on blood clotting of some west African plants used against snakebite.

Houghton PJ, Skari KP.

Chelsea Department of Pharmacy, King's College London, UK.

Aqueous extracts of the bark of Schumanniophyton magnificum and the leaves of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, Strophanthus gratus and Strophanthus hispidus show a dose related ability to prolong the time taken to clot for blood treated with a standardised dose of the venom of Echis carinatus. Strophanthus hispidus was shown to be the most potent of the plants tested. The dose-response profiles obtained showed that the increased clotting time was due to different processes for the different plant extracts.

PMID: 7853871 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

55. Nutritive value of the foods cultivated and consumed by the tribals of south India.


Department of Foods and Nutrition, Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India.

Twenty five foods cultivated and consumed by the tribals of Andhra Pradesh, India, comprising cereals/millets, legumes, tubers and miscellaneous foods collected seasonally from 20 tribal villages were analysed for proximate composition, vitamins and minerals. The major findings of the study were as follows: Protein content of cereals/millets ranged from 6.8 to 11.8 g per 100 g and that of legumes from 20 to 23.8 g per 100 g. The uncommon legume, judumulu (Vigna sp.) grown by the tribals had the protein content of 22 g per 100 g. A wild legume, Mucuna pruriens, had the highest protein content of 27.9 g per 100 g. Mineral contents of the foods showed greater variations. Two varieties of ragi and horsegram grown in the area had an iron contents of 38 mgs per 100 g. Among the wild tubers analysed, Diascorea hispida and D. bulbifera had about 134 Kcal per 100 g. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) analysed in the raw tubers ranged from 8.7 to 11.5 percent and caryota palm pith had IVSD 5.9 percent. Among the miscellaneous foods analysed, rajkeera seed (Amaranthus paniculatus) had protein content of 22 g per 100 g. Amylase inhibitor units of the wild tubers varied from 80 to 400 A/U and that of caryota palm pith was 712 A/U.

Publication Types: PMID: 7971787 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

56. Mucuna pruriens: improvement of the biotechnological production of the anti-Parkinson drug L-dopa by plant cell selection.

Pras N, Woerdenbag HJ, Batterman S, Visser JF, Van Uden W.

Department of Pharmacognosy, University Centre for Pharmacy, Groningen University, The Netherlands.

Routinely grown cell suspension cultures of Mucuna pruriens L. (Fabaceae) were able to endogenously accumulate the anti-Parkinson drug L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) in the range between 0.2 and 2% on a dry weight (DW) basis. The green colour that developed in light-exposed cultures, appeared to be a suitable marker to select cells with an increased L-dopa biosynthesis and/or phenoloxidase activity. For this purpose, saccharose concentrations from 0 to 4% (w/v), and light intensities of 1,000 and 2,000 lux, were involved in the selection procedure. After 6 months, photomixotrophic callus cultures with a rapid growth and a high L-dopa content of 0.9% (DW) were obtained on 2% saccharose and under 1,000 lux. The cell suspensions, derived from these calli, accumulated up to 6% (DW) L-dopa, which was the highest stable content ever measured in cultures of M. pruriens. An L-dopa yield of approximately 1.2 g/l was calculated after 6 days of growth. In contrast, compared wtih the standard-grown parent cell line, the phenoloxidase activity, and consequently the bioconversion capacity as measured after entrapment in calcium alginate, of these high-producing cultures was approximately threefold lower.

PMID: 8298586 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

57. Relationships among Isoprene Emission Rate, Photosynthesis, and Isoprene Synthase Activity as Influenced by Temperature.

Monson RK, Jaeger CH, Adams WW, Driggers EM, Silver GM, Fall R.

Department of Environmental, Population, and Organismic Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0334.

Isoprene emissions from the leaves of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens L. var utilis) plants exhibited temperature response patterns that were dependent on the plant's growth temperature. Plants grown in a warm regimen (34/28 degrees C, day/night) exhibited a temperature optimum for emissions of 45 degrees C, whereas those grown in a cooler regimen (26/20 degrees C, day/night) exhibited an optimum of 40 degrees C. Several previous studies have provided evidence of a linkage between isoprene emissions and photosynthesis, and more recent studies have demonstrated that isoprene emissions are linked to the activity of isoprene synthase in plant leaves. To further explore this linkage within the context of the temperature dependence of isoprene emissions, we determined the relative temperature dependencies of photosynthetic electron transport, CO(2) assimilation, and isoprene synthase activity. When measured over a broad range of temperatures, the temperature dependence of isoprene emission rate was not closely correlated with either the electron transport rate or the CO(2) assimilation rate. The temperature optima for electron transport rate and CO(2) assimilation rate were 5 to 10 degrees C lower than that for the isoprene emission rate. The dependence of isoprene emissions on photon flux density was also affected by measurement temperature in a pattern independent of those exhibited for electron transport rate and CO(2) assimilation rate. Thus, despite no change in the electron transport rate or CO(2) assimilation rate at 26 and 34 degrees C, the isoprene emission rate changed markedly. The quantum yield of isoprene emissions was stimulated by a temperature increase from 26 to 34 degrees C, whereas the quantum yield for CO(2) assimilation was inhibited. In greenhouse-grown aspen leaves (Populus tremuloides Michaux.), the high temperature threshold for inhibition of isoprene emissions was closely correlated with the high temperature-induced decrease in the in vitro activity of isoprene synthase. When taken together, the results indicate that although there may be a linkage between isoprene emission rate and photosynthesis, the temperature dependence of isoprene emission is not determined solely by the rates of CO(2) assimilation or electron transport. Rather, we propose that regulation is accomplished primarily through the enzyme isoprene synthase.

PMID: 16668743 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]PMCID: PMC1080324

58. Antidiabetic evaluation of Mucuna pruriens, Linn seeds.

Akhtar MS, Qureshi AQ, Iqbal J.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

Effects of powdered Mucuna pruriens seeds on blood glucose levels were investigated in normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. In normal group 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg of M. pruriens pulv significantly decreased the blood glucose levels while in alloxan-diabetic rabbits only 1 and 2 g/kg body weight caused a significant fall. The reference drug, acetohexamide in 500 mg/kg dose significantly reduced the blood glucose levels but in normal rabbits only. High levels of trace elements like manganese, zinc, and others were found in these seeds. Therefore, it is conceivable that M. pruriens seeds contain hypoglycaemic principles, may be both organic and mineral, which seem to act indirectly by stimulating the release of insulin and/or by a direct insulin-like action.

Publication Types: PMID: 2125657 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

59. Paralysis agitans and levodopa in "Ayurveda": ancient Indian medical treatise.

Manyam BV.

Division of Neurology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield 62794-9230.

Neurologic diseases (Vata rogas, Sanskrit) and the pharmacologic treatment of them were described in the ancient Indian medical system--Ayurveda. This article explores paralysis agitans, which was described under the name Kampavata. Mucuna pruriens (Atmagupta, Sanskrit), which contains levodopa, was used in the treatment of Kampavata. Existence of paralysis agitans prior to the industrial revolution is not just of historical interest, but would also suggest that under the hypothesis of exposure to environmental toxins as a possible cause of paralysis agitans, natural organic compounds with worldwide distribution should also be considered.

Publication Types: PMID: 2404203 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

60. Oligosaccharides in several Philippine indigenous food legumes: determination, localization and removal.

Revilleza MJ, Mendoza EM, Raymundo LC.

Institute of Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, Los Bańos.

The oligosaccharide profile of raw mature seeds of seven different legumes indigenous to the Philippines was measured in 70% ethanol extracts of the seeds by thin layer chromatography using HPTLC plates and quantified by a densitometer. Based on the results, the legumes could be ranked according to decreasing oligosaccharide content or flatulence potential as follows: Sam-samping (Clitoria ternatea) greater than hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab) greater than sabawel (Mucuna pruriens) greater than lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) greater than swordbean (Canavalia gladiata) greater than rice bean (Vigna umbellata) greater than jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). Sam-samping had 4.79% total oligosaccharides and hyacinth bean or batao, 3.66%. A jack bean accession had 1.79% oligosaccharides. Simple processing methods were tested to detoxify the oligosaccharides. Soaking the batao seeds had no effect while boiling even resulted in a net 23-31% increase in the levels of raffinose, stachyose and verbascose. On the other hand, two min of dry roasting resulted in complete removal of oligosaccharides whereas germination resulted in about 30-40% decrease after 1 and 2 days, respectively.

Publication Types: PMID: 2345736 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

61.Cyclodextrin-facilitated bioconversion of 17 beta-estradiol by a phenoloxidase from Mucuna pruriens cell cultures.

Woerdenbag HJ, Pras N, Frijlink HW, Lerk CF, Malingré TM.

Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

After complexation with beta-cyclodextrin, the phenolic steroid 17 beta-estradiol could be ortho-hydroxylated into a catechol, mainly 4-hydroxyestradiol, by a phenoloxidase from in vitro grown cells of Mucuna pruriens. By complexation with beta-cyclodextrin the solubility of the steroid increased from almost insoluble to 660 microM. The bioconversion efficiency after 72 hr increased in the following order: freely suspended cells (0%), immobilized cells (1%), cell homogenate (6%), phenoloxidase preparation (40%). Mushroom tyrosinase converted 17 beta-estradiol, as a complex with beta-cyclodextrin, solely into 2-hydroxyestradiol, with a maximal yield of 30% after 6-8 hr. Uncomplexed 17 beta-estradiol was not converted at all in any of these systems.

PMID: 1367429 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

62. Kinetic aspects of the bioconversion of L-tyrosine into L-DOPA by cells of Mucuna pruriensL. Entrapped in different matrices.

Pras N, Hesselink PG, Ten Tusscher J, Malingré TM.

Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Groningen, A. Deusinglaan 2, 9713 AW Groningen, The Netherlands.

Plant cells of Mucuna pruriens L. entrapped In calcium alginate, calcium pectinate, agarose, or gelatine were able to convert L-tyrosine to L-DOPA, which was released Into the medium. Michaelis-Menten kinetics could be applied on the entrapped cells, based on the measurement of initial rates of L-DOPA production. The calculated apparent affinity constants were comparable with the affinity constants obtained with enzyme preparations. Comparison of the apparent maximum rate of bioconversion of the entrapped cells and the maximum rate of bioconversion of a derived cell homogenate indicated that the systems were not operating optimally. Measurement of the effective diffusion coefficients of L-tyrosine pointed out that this substrate could diffuse freely into the matrices. From the initial rates of bioconversion and the effective diffusion coefficients, the observable modulus was calculated for each system. The obtained values confirmed that the diffusional supply rate of L-tyrosine was not the limiting factor. For oxygen, which was utilized for byconversion as well as for cell respiration, the calculated observable moduli was directed toward strong oxygen transfer limitations. The values found for the oxygen consumption indicated that the entrapped cells remained partly or totally viable in the four matrices tested. Based on the highest viability and the highest rates of bioconversion, it was concluded that alginate-entrapped cells of M. pruriens formed the most suitable biocatalytic system for the production of L-DOPA from L-tyrosinre.

PMID: 18588095 [PubMed - in process]

63. Further kinetic characterization of alginate-entrapped cells of Mucuna pruriens L.

Pras N, Hesselink PG, Guikema WM, Malingré TM.

Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Groningen, A. Deusinglaan 2, 9713 AW Groningen, The Netherlands.

Alginate-entrapped cells of Mucuna pruriens L. hydroxylate L-tyrosine, tyramine, para-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, and para-hydroxyphenylacetic acid to their corresponding catechols, which were released into the incubation medium. Michaëlis-Menten kinetics was applied for each bioconversion. The apparent affinity constants were comparable with the affinity constants obtained with a homogenate directly prepared from the cells used for entrapment and with a derived partly purified phenoloxidase. The values found for the apparent maximum rates of bioconversion of the entrapped cells were ca. 50% of the values of the maximum rates of bioconversion of the cell homogenate, indicating that the entrapped cell system was not operating optimally. The effective diffusivities of the substrates and products were measured with alginate-entrapped, inactivated cells. From the five inactivation methods tested, glutaric aldehyde treatment was chosen as the general procedure. Calculated effective diffusivities for the monophenols and catechols demonstrated that these compounds could diffuse freely into and out of the beads. For each bioconversion, the observable modulus was calculated from the initial rate of bioconversion and the effective diffusivity of the substrate. The resulting values indicated that the diffusional supply rate of the substrates was not the limiting factor, except for the conversion of tyramine for which a modulus higher than one was obtained. Analogously, the observable moduli were calculated for oxygen, which was utilized for bioconversion and cell respiration, and these values pointed towards strong oxygen limitation in all cases. The bioconversion rates of the entrapped cells increased with decreasing cell aggregate size. Therefore, it was concluded that direct cell-matrix contact determined the amount of phenoloxidase involved in the bioconversions. The bioconversion rate on a protein basis was constant with enhancement of the bead charge and thus, in spite of limitations, the mixing conditions as such were relatively optimal. In conclusion, the nonoptimal efficiency of the plant cell system studied was caused by oxygen limitation and a partial phenoloxidase participation, but not by mass transfer limitations for substrates and products with the exception of the conversion of tyramine into dopamine.

PMID: 18587886 [PubMed - in process]

64. Effect of temperature on aflatoxin production in Mucuna pruriens seeds.

Roy AK, Chourasia HK.

Medicinal Plants Research Laboratory, University Department of Botany, Bhagalpur University, India.

This paper describes the effect of temperature on the level of aflatoxin production in Mucuna pruriens seeds. The highest level of aflatoxin B1 (1.75 micrograms/g) was detected in the samples incubated at 25 degrees C for three weeks. At 20, 30, and 35 degrees C, aflatoxin levels were 0.30 to 0.56, 0.37 to 1.20, and 0.26 to 0.65 micrograms/g, respectively. The lowest concentration of aflatoxin B1 (0.10 to 0.29 microgram/g) was produced at 15 degrees C.

PMID: 2719482 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC184149

 

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